Dr. Max Ortiz Catalan, Ph.D., developed a new method for the treatment of Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) based on the promotion of phantom movements along with virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), namly Phantom Motor Execution (video).
Complex movements of the missing limb (phantom) are predicted by machine learning algorithms using patterns of muscular activity at the stump (myoelectric pattern recognition), while the patient is provided with timely visual feedback in virtual or augmented reality environments. This non-invasive therapy that exploits principles of brain plasticity has shown to be effective in chronic PLP sufferers for whom no other treatments were effective (intractable chronic PLP). Further development and clinical validation is currently ongoing.



  • Centre for Advanced Reconstruction of Extremities (C.A.R.E.), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
  • Rehabilitation Centre for Upper Limb Prosthetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • University Health Care Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University,  Örebro, Sweden.
  • Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
  • Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
  • BräckeDiakoni Rehabcenter Sfären, Solna, Sweden.
  • University Rehabilitation Institute, Linhartova 51, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  • Ghent University Hospital (Dutch: Universitair Ziekenhuis Gent; UZ Gent), Ghent, Belgium.
  • University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Integrum AB, Krokslätts Fabriker 50, SE-431 37, Mölndal, Sweden.


This research has been funded by:

Listed in chronological order

Theme: Overlay by Kaira
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