Skip to content

Safety of long-term electrical peripheral nerve stimulation: review of the state of the art

By Kirstin Ahmed

This review of electrical peripheral nerve stimulation found that electrodes which attach around the outside of the nerve have superior long-term stability compared to electrodes which pierce the nerve. In reviewing animal and human studies, we found that stimulation frequencies below 30 Hz and with less than 50% active stimulation time are considered safe for long-term use. Other safety limitations depend on the geometry and arrangement of electrodes in the body, and thus further investigation is needed. These conclusions help to ensure the health and safety of the neural tissues and the individuals using these technologies, allowing such sensory feedback to continue to be used long-term and in daily life.